Angola: from before its creation by the Portuguese until the exodus of these by our creation - Economic Edition - Vol. II
  • Angola: from before its creation by the Portuguese until the exodus of these by our creation - Economic Edition - Vol. II
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Angola: from before its creation by the Portuguese until the exodus of these by our creation - Economic Edition - Vol. II

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Author: Carlos Mariano Manuel

Publisher: Perfil Criativo - Edições

Year of publication (2nd edition): July 2021

Angola Edition - ISBN: 978-989-53209-3-6

Portugal Edition - ISBN: 978-989-53079-5-1

Number of pages: 606

Editor's Note: "A Great Parable"

Booking of copies:

Free Reading: Volume II (26 pages)

Language: Portuguese


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Preface II, by Onofre dos Santos


The international conjuncture in the transition to the XIX century and the formal abolition of the slave trade in the territories under Portuguese colonial domination

  • Historical events initiated on the American continent and with globalizing repercussions
  • The Portuguese abolitionist ordinary legislation of the slave trade
  • The formal extinction of the condition of freedman and the successive creation of the status of free person and the regime of compulsory labor


The sparse and late sedentarization of the Portuguese in the South of Angola in the nineteenth century and the continued widespread resistance of the natives, witnessed, as an example, in annual reports of three governors general

  • The undefeated Dembos region until the second decade of the 20th century
  • "The natural condition of administration in this colony is to make war and prepare for it"
  • The aggregation at the end of the 19th century of the East of the current territory of the country in the primitive colony of Angola


The Berlin Conference on Africa

  • Some organizational aspects
  • Summaries of the subjects dealt with in the nine succeeding ones
  • Plenary Sessions of the Conference
  • Second Plenary Session
  • Third Plenary Session
  • Fourth Plenary Session
  • Fifth Plenary Session
  • Sixth Plenary Session
  • Seventh Plenary Session
  • Eighth Plenary Session and the initially rejected proposal of the American representation to address the inalienable right of Africans to dispose of their territories
  • Ninth Session and the cunning diplomacy that created the Congo Free State, a political-administrative entity that preceded the current Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Tenth Session and the formal closing of the Conference


Effects on Angola of the Berlin Conference on Africa general contextualization

  • The "open door" policy and the imminence, casually frustrated, of Angola slipping into German colonial jurisdiction
  • german colonial jurisdiction
  • A new paradigm of Portuguese colonization after the end of the Berlin Conference on Africa
  • How commercial ambition in the colonial era contributed greatly to the promotion
  • of alcoholism in Angola
  • The conception and implementation of the indigenato regime in the 20th century
  • The Identity Card and the Assimilated Status to the European culture as instruments of freedom and of social stratification of the natives
  • The taxation by the colonial authorities as an instrument of domination over the natives: from the cubata taxes and indigenous to the single annual tax


Economic history of Angola: from the simple plundering to the economic valorization of the territory, framed in the project of creation of the, by the colonial authorities longed for, New Lusitania

  • From the times of the Zimbo, Makuta, Angolar, Real, Escudos and foreign currencies to the institution of the banking activity in Angola
  • Infrastructures of terrestrial transports
  • First big public work: the railroad, initially called Ambaca and later Luanda
  • Beginning of the construction of the Moçâmedes railroad, precipitated by the heavy defeat of the Portuguese forces that occurred in 1905 in Cuamato
  • For the Benguela Railroad "God must have spent a whole night to make this magnificent port
  • for the Portuguese. It is the best natural harbor I have seen on the coasts of Africa or America"
  • How the independence of the Democratic Republic of Congo indirectly contributed to the abortion of the Congo railroad, raising consequent difficulties in the development of Northern Angola
  • Other railroads
  • Circulation and road equipment: Malanje casually anticipated all localities in the interior of Angola, in the opening of roads for automobile circulation
  • Entrepreneurship and professional talent of the natives
  • Angola's economic crisis from the second to the fourth decades of the 20th century
  • The institutionalization of the First Plan de Fomento de Angola
  • Projects foreseen in the First Plan de Fomento Económico de Angola
  • Second Angolan Economic Development Plan
  • Interim, Third and Fourth Economic Plans
  • The paradox between the implementation of the Economic Development Plans and the prevalence of social degradation in the vast majority of the native population


From the pride of the pluricontinental and multiracial empire to the swan song, as prodromes of its collapse: the only three sovereign voyages of Portuguese heads of state to colonized Angola

  • Revisit the steps in Angola of the three Portuguese presidents and infer from them the social, economic and political evolution of the territory in the 20th century
  • Brief description of the demographic and economic geography of the city of Luanda in the period between the 17th and early 20th centuries
  • The Treaties of Simulambuco and Soio signed between the Native Authorities and the Portuguese
  • Insalubrity of the city of Luanda and with the majority of European citizens constituted by criminal degredados
  • Continuation of the sovereignty tour of the first Portuguese head of state to visit Angola, general António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona
  • Sovereign visit of the president, General Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes
  • The swan songs sung in Angola, over the decrepit and mortally wounded colonial empire, by the last Portuguese head of the New State, Admiral Américo de Deus Rodrigues Thomaz



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