Angola: from before its creation by the Portuguese until the exodus of these by our creation - Economic Edition - Vol. III
  • Angola: from before its creation by the Portuguese until the exodus of these by our creation - Economic Edition - Vol. III
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Angola: from before its creation by the Portuguese until the exodus of these by our creation - Economic Edition - Vol. III

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Author: Carlos Mariano Manuel

Publisher: Perfil Criativo - Edições

Year of publication (2nd edition): September 2021

Angola Edition - ISBN: 978-989-53209-4-3

Portugal Edition - ISBN: 978-989-53079-6-8

Number of pages: 864

Editor's Note: "A Great Parable"

Booking of copies:

Free Reading: Volume III (48 pages)

Language: Portuguese


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Preface III, by Cornelius Caley


The Unfavorable Post-World War II International Context for the Maintenance of Colonialisms

  • The effects of the Berlin Conference on Africa in the African Diasporas
    Growing mobilization in the World against Portuguese colonialism
  • Collective mobilization of African nations and peoples against colonialism in general and against the Portuguese in particular
  • Opposition of Portuguese progressive circles against colonialism practiced by their country's authorities


Angolan associative organizations, mostly vindicatory, and religious with liberation doctrine, that preceded the outbreak of the uprisings and insurrections against colonialism

  • Angolan League
  • African Guild
  • Athletic Club of Luanda
  • Peace and Work Guild
  • Angolan Cultural Society
  • African National League
  • Anangola
  • Southern Angola African Association
  • The Protestant churches were also a bastion peace for the extinction of colonialism


The historical events together referred to as the "Process of 50"

  • On the nature and name of the "Process
  • The apparently fortuitous incident that triggered the famous "Process of 50
  • The second wave of repression against the nationalists involved in the "Process
  • The evocation of the mobilizing heroism of King Muana Malaza or Nvita Nkanga or King Anthony I of Congo, hero-martyr the battle of Ambuila, the Movement for the Independence of Angola (MIA)


The patriotic days that shook the colonialism in Angola occurred in the first quarter of 1961

  • Uprising and insurrection in Lower Kassange
  • Obscurantist and syncretic oath of the insurgents
  • Military actions of the natives and the Portuguese in Baixa de Kassange
  • The events of the 4th (and subsequent) February 1961 in Luanda
  • Superstition and obscurantism instrumentalized for the mobilization of those involved
  • march 15, 1961: the hecatomb of the colonial regime
  • Succession of military actions of the insurgents and carried out only in Uige
  • Assessment of the events in Angola by the UN Security Council
  • Second meeting of the UN Security Council on the situation in Angola


Angolan nationalism with initial regional expression: the case of UPNA, then with national expression of UPA and finally FNLA

  • General political, diplomatic and military dynamics in the context of the struggle for independence
  • The reasons for the multicentric and asynchronous origin of Angolan nationalist organizations


The National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA)

  • The initial political constraints of the FNLA, based on the alienation in 1885 of the southern region of the fragmented Congo kingdom and empire to Portugal by negotiation with Belgium and France, its consequent aggregation to the primitive colony of Angola and the creation of the Portuguese Congo district with its capital in Cabinda
  • The relationship between the origin of Angolan nationalism and the competition between the established religious denominations in Northern Angola
  • Portuguese military expedition to Damba and submission of its native population
  • The role of the Baptist missionary society (with its English initials BMS) in the ontology of Angolan nationalism in Northern Angola
  • The relevance of the Protestant Baptist mission in the ontology of nationalism in Northern Angola
  • The tribulations in the Congo's throne succession in the first half of the 20th century and the origin of Angolan nationalism in Northern Angola
  • Immediate background to the founding of the UPNA
  • The stormy entry of the UPA-FNLA leader into Angolan history
  • The geopolitics of Central Africa and the ethno-nationalism running counter to the UPA's aspirations
  • The relationship between the 1960 riots in the former Congo Leopoldville and the outbreak of insurrections in Angola in 1961
  • Still the apocalyptic and insurrectionary eruption in the North of Angola
  • From the formation of the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) to the establishment of the Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile (GRAE)
  • The usual dark side of politics: ambition for power, intrigues and notable dissensions within the FNLA and GRAE
  • The FNLA mutiny in Luvaka in 1966
  • The multiple punitive shootings of rebellious soldiers at the Kinkuzu military base in 1972
  • The deep and negative internal consequences registered inside the FNLA and consequent to the serious incidents that occurred in the military base of Kinkuzu in 1972
  • Expansion of the FNLA/GRAE-led guerrilla warfare
  • Social assistance dispensed by GRAE
  • Other incidents of GRAE's diplomatic activity
  • Ideological identity of the FNLA


The Angolan nationalism gathered within the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA)

  • On the genesis of the name of the political organization
  • The formation abroad of political platforms agglutinating the independentist organizations of the territories under colonization of Portugal
  • The first serious and historical split within the MPLA
  • The formation of the Democratic Liberation Front of Angola (FDLA) and consequent self-demission of the first (or second, depending on the perspective still of controversy) president of the organization
  • The diplomatic offensive of the MPLA against the FNLA-GRAE by virtue of the recognition of the latter in 1963 by the OAU Liberation Committee of Africa (Committee of 9)
  • The government triumphant by coup d'état and led by Massamba Debat in Congo Brazaville turned the country into a safe territory for the operation of African political organizations with a pro-socialist and pro-communist political orientation
  • The relevance of Cuba's involvement in Africa in the consolidation of the MPLA-led anti-colonial struggle in Angola
  • The colonial conflict tragically knocked on the door of the incumbent governor general in Angola
  • In Cuba there is a popular adage that says: el que no tiene de Congo tiene de carabali
  • First visit in 1966 of the leader of MPLA, Dr. António Agostinho Neto, and the military responsible of the organization, José Mendes de Carvalho, to the Socialist Republic of Cuba, was determinant for the re-launching of the fight auspiced by MPLA
  • The colonial conflict was also fratricide and of proxy: the tragedy of the physical disappearance in Congo Kinshasa of five women affiliated to the mpla and integrated in the Camy squadron, that they sought to internalize in Angola
  • The extension of the guerrilla under the tutelage of MPLA to the East region of the country
  • About the manifestations of tribalism and racism inside of the organization
  • Tumultuous contestation of the members of MPLA integrated in their structures of I and II regions against the superior leadership of the organization in 1972
  • The agreement of unity and cooperation celebrated on December 13, 1972 between the National Front of Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and the Popular Movement of Liberation of Angola (MPLA)
  • The MPLA torn with two internal dissentions and rebellions from 1973 on: the cases of the revolt of the East and that of the militants in active revolt
  • The inconclusive I Congress of MPLA occurred in 1974 in Lusaka/Zambia


The Angolan nationalism originated in the Center and South of the country: From the religious and regional associativism to the foundation of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)

  • The resistance of the populations still manifested in the form of ephemeral efforts of opposition and combat to colonialism
  • The rise of UNITA and its three congresses held before the end of the colonial conflict
  • The obscure phase of the organization and the unfathomable design of its leader
  • The coup d'etat of April 25, 1974 in Portugal, its effects in Angola in general and inside UNITA in particular


The "Holy Trinity" of Angolan Liberation: the efforts of each of the three armed and independence organizations to consolidate in a hegemonic way in their regions of origin and of greater political support, with particular emphasis in urban areas

  • The MPLA moved ahead in Luanda in 1974 with the creation of the short-lived Angola Political Action Committee (CAPA)
  • Competition for political and military hegemony between liberation movements
  • The entry of violence into urban areas and the influx of foreign forces into Angola before the proclamation of independence reflecting the proxy conflict component in the context of the global Cold War
  • The last lost moment for the promotion of a harmonious independence and further evolution in Angola, between the three Liberation Movements
  • The Battle of Quifangondo


The protracted and severe dystocia of the independence of Angola

  • The almost simultaneous accomplishment of the battle of Quifangondo that took place in the outskirts of Luanda, opposing the FNLA and the MPLA, as well as personnel from their respective foreign military coalitions, and the proclamation of independence in three cities of Angola
  • The leaders of the three Movements of National Liberation
  • The exodus of the Portuguese by creation of the Angolans



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